Sunday, April 5, 2020
Introduction Development, be it social, economic and/or environmental, has to be understood as an inherently political process of people claiming basic rights to manage the resources their lives depend on. In principle, everyone should be involved. Managing the inherent complexity requires a process of comprehensive engagement and negotiation with a broad range of stakeholders and the conscious and strategic acknowledgement of their divergent values and interests, needs and expectations. This paper emphasizes that dialogue and negotiation among stakeholders are the vehicles through which sustainable community development projects are established, implemented and monitored. Bottom-up CD programs which emanate from the grassroots level and closely involve community members are more successful than those that are developed top-down. Who is a stakeholder? There is not much disagreement on what kind of entity a stakeholder can be. The CD process consists of donors, target beneficiaries, partner agencies, government and non-governmental organizations. Bryson (1999) defines a stakeholder as Ã¢â¬Ëany person, group or organisation that can place a claim on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, resources or output, or is affected by that outputÃ¢â¬â¢, which concurs with Freemans definition that: A stakeholder in an organization is (by definition) any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organizations objectives (1984). We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Stakeholders in Community Development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Thus, stakeholders are individuals or groups that may be positively or negatively affected by the project and those that can bring expertise or resources, each is of equal importance. How important are they? The importance of attending to stakeholders is emphasized in several literatures (Freeman 1984; Eade Williams, 1995; Hoff, 1998; Bryson 1999 etc. ). The authors explain that stakeholder support is needed to create and sustain winning coalitions and to ensure the long-term viability of organizations, policies, plans, and programs. Key stakeholders must be satisfied at least minimally, or public policies, organizations, communities, or even countries will fail. Stakeholder expectations and their satisfaction represent the basis against which CD efforts and activities are judged (Sautter, 1999). Satisfaction is achieved by being responsive to the needs and expectations of the stakeholders. These expectations are diverse and sometimes in conflict with each other, yet overlooking them could severely restrict CD work. Thus, the role of the stakeholder in the CD process presents obvious problems as each stakeholder carries an element of self-interest in the project, with different expectations and views on priorities. It is important to include stakeholders who represent the true diversity of the community; as Sautter (1999) states, if a project is not meeting the expectations of several interest groups, it probably should not exist at all. Stakeholder Engagement Any management activity is fundamentally a negotiation process between stakeholders that should be initiated from the start and maintained not only during the project/initiative but in the long term through appropriate organizational and institutional arrangements (Sanderson Kindon, 2004). CD projects engage people, organizations, NGOs and government and it is recognized that they have increased success if they promote stakeholder participation, coordination and cooperation and reflect consensus opinion (Kleemeier, 2000; Eguren, 2008). Newman (2008) and Eguren (2008) appreciate the fact that similar issues affect stakeholders differently. As such, managers need to constantly assess stakeholder significance in the light of individual issues, in order to guide the amount of time and resources allocated to them. Effective CD demands synchronous attention to the genuine interests of all appropriate stakeholders. Sautter (1999) emphasizes this premise and cautions that failure to retain participation of even a single primary stakeholder group could result in the failure. The idea of comprehensively identifying and accommodating stakeholder values and interests with the ultimate aim of agreeing on a common agenda toward sustainability is a complex process and requires consensus building (Weisbord Janoff, 2000). This does not simply mean realizing that multiple stakeholders have different needs and values, but to sincerely try to understand and respect their differences. Therefore, as Simpson et al. , (2003) state, successful intervention of projects depends not only on genuine stakeholder participation but strong and effective management, as well as skilled and committed staff. CD project workers need to have the ability to recognize and respond effectively to a disparate set of entities. Consulting with, educating and assessing stakeholder motivation is important so that their influence doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t potentially conflict with and undermine the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Weisbord and Janoff (2000) emphasize that subjects involved in CD, particularly the CD organizations, must thus develop and use skills and capacities for productive multi-stakeholder collaboration. These should include: systematic thinking, cultural sensitivity, trust building and mutual understanding and developing process to build social capital and strong multi-stakeholder networks. Planners need to adapt to diverse communication styles, changing priorities and different values in a non-judgmental, non-threatening and non-defensive manner and recognize that there is more than one way, one theory, and one solution (Newman, 2008). Stakeholder Strategies: the Bottom-up Approach The Ã¢â¬Ëbottom-upÃ¢â¬â¢ approach posits a broad range of stakeholders actively engaged in development action: each stakeholder is different, with its own interests, missions, procedures, and ways of deploying power in development action. Recognizing the multiplicity of the subjects of development is, as many authors believe, especially crucial for improving bottom-up practice (Kleemeier, 2000; Sanderson Kindon, 2004; Newman, 2008). CD projects planned Ã¢â¬Ëtop-downÃ¢â¬â¢ do not allow for participation of all stakeholders, namely community members. For example, Simpson et al. (2003) reports on their project: Ã¢â¬Ëthe nature of the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s participation was regulated by the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s agenda for the project, rather than by the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s own needs, and individuals outside the immediate steering committee consequently felt isolated from decision-making and ownership of the project. The failure of traditional top-down development approaches was attributed to the lack of involvement of most of the potential beneficiaries and led observers of, and participants in, CD to advocate for an approach that included as many stakeholders as possible. A shift in the approach to community developmen t (CD) has afforded more local communities the opportunity to participate in processes to articulate their expectations and to prioritize their needs (Ife, 1995). The premise behind this approach is that local people need to fully participate and contribute towards addressing their own problems in their own communities. It is only out of the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s own efforts that a change can be realized, because they are better informed of their needs and are the best sources of the answers to these needs. This creates an enabling atmosphere for them and enables participation in the implementation and the monitoring of the development. The aim of community participation is the empowerment and capacity building of people, which allows beneficiaries of projects to choose their alternatives. Community participation in development initiatives leads to self-transformation and self-reliance, thereby ensuring sustainability of programs and projects. It is easy to conclude that supporting local bottom-up processes brings greater and faster impact regarding the development of marginalized communities compared with highly politicized and abstract top-down approaches. The relevance of bottom-up participatory approaches has increased as organisations work to scale up their impact by undertaking projects which aim to build capacity or have an emphasis on developing local advocacy (Kotaval; 2005; Sautter, 1999) . Participatory aspects that enhance CD projects have been identified by several authors. Laverack (2001) provides a useful overview of the Ã¢â¬Ëoperational domainsÃ¢â¬â¢ of community empowerment, which he states is central to CD. He highlights that without participation, community empowerment and thus development would not occur. Diamond (2004) refers to participatory development as the co-operation, mobilization of communities or involving communities in the execution of development plans. Moreover, this approach emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of people, partnerships, the sharing of power and responsibility and empowerment. It views the communities as people with potential as well as capacity to manage their own development and above all encourages involvement of all stakeholders relevant to the development process (Simpson et al, 2003). Healthy, self-reliant communities are, as Weisbord and Janoff (2000) assert, built on connections stimulated by the empowering of individuals and groups. The participatory, bottom-up approach allows: Understanding the context If all stakeholders are consulted, a thorough understanding of the context of the CD project is gained. Resources acquired through CD do not benefit all segments of the community equally, depending on gender, age etc. , and it is imperative that CD planners take into account the interplay of the society and local community gender dynamics, culture, and power structures to accommodate for this (Ward et al. , 2008). Creativity Diversity of stakeholders groups and demographics allows for more creativity to problem solving and focuses on the strengths of the group. They often contain the seeds for new solutions. Placing value on local knowledge and the context in which it has been produced provides an avenue for establishing the trust relations and collaboration that are the basis for a successful development partnership and process (Sanderson Kindon, 2004). Through designing a process which draws on the strengths of multiple approaches, each bringing with them their own advantages and constraints in these ways, the final result is likely to be much richer. Relationship and Trust Building Involving all stakeholders allows them to communicate and build beneficial relationships and trust. Social capital theory suggests that people achieve more by cooperating, thus stakeholder engagement is a major catalyst for the creation of social capacity and capital. Putnam (1993) suggests that social capital is built through the trust we develop by working together and Cox (1995) talks about the necessity of trust in order for collaboration to occur as Ã¢â¬Å"trust leads to cooperationÃ¢â¬ . These relationships create a learning space, particularly for polarized dialogue, and exposes and challenges the discourses and mindsets of many participants. Empowerment and Capacity Building Bottom-up approaches are more socially inclusive, build on local strengths, and promote leadership, as well as ownership and accountability, of both problems and solutions (Simpson et al. , 2003). This leads to empowerment and builds capacity which enables the community to carry out the plan in the absence of the consultant, ensuring sustainability (Laverack, 2001). Stakeholders in contest Ã¢â¬â Limitations to the Bottom-up Approach The relationship between CD projects and providers, namely NGOÃ¢â¬â¢s, and their donors, illustrates the way in which stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s interests can conflict and jeopardise the bottom-up process. The structures and major players operating within the development arena were traditionally formed as a top-down system. However, the transformed focus of development toward a bottom-up approach has come into tension with this top-down structure; participation from the bottom-up is difficult when projects are planned at higher levels (Simpson et al. , 2003). As the general structure of development actions has historically been established as top-down, it is no surprise that top-down notions continue to be reflected in practice. CD providers usually come under pressure to achieve the goals of their donors (who usually work according to Western business principles) and are required to maintain appropriate upward accountability. However, as Simpson et al. (2003) point out, the recipient organisations and communities may not necessarily have the same goals as the donors. Thus, those projects heavily dependent on meeting the requirements of their donors probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t develop good relationships with, or meet the requirements of, the communities involved, which will undermine the CD process itself. The power imbalance between Ã¢â¬Å"fundersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"providersÃ¢â¬ of CD projects has been identified as a significant problem as it is likely that CD planners will be pressured to implement programs out of step with local needs (Davies, 1997). More consultation with and education of donors by their recipients is required to allow donors to better understand the nature of their project and their relationships with communities (Davies, 1997). CD providers must develop the capacity and professionalism to be able to challenge their donors to construct their CD project in such a way that the interests of the recipient communities are at the forefront and have a more active role in defining their own concepts of civil society (Weisbord and Janoff, 2000). Flexibility within the project that allows incorporation of feedback from participatory evaluation needs to complement ongoing work, linking its aims nd methods to that of the original project, including deep consideration of the power relations of all those involved in the project. It is only through this openness, and an ability to challenge a program of work and integrate learning directly into practice, that stakeholder interests will be balanced effectively over the long-term. Conclusion CD is a mediation process between real and perceived conflicts of interest among stakeholders in a community. Tensions among development stakeholders exist inherently alongside the commo n desire to improve the well-being of disadvantaged people. There is a broad range of stakeholders actively engaged in development action: each stakeholder is different, with its own interests, missions, procedures, and ways of deploying power in development action, their values, interests, participation and power dynamics are critical factors in determining the outcome of CD. It is therefore vital to consider them, not just in the planning phases of projects, but through its entire course, to ensure projects remain relevant and coherent to the context in which they are being implemented (Simpson et al. 2003). However, connections and interactions among stakeholders are dynamic and inherently problematic, and must be recognized and negotiated to enable existing understandings and ways of working to be challenged and new ways to be trialed and adopted (Quarles van Ufford ,1993). Accommodating collective action through participative, bottom-up approaches acknowledges the complexity of stakeholder interactions and creates a platform for communities to develop. References Bryson, J. M. (1999). A Strategic Planning Process for Public and Non-Profit Organisations. in J. M.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Human Resource Management Approaches Introduction Human Resource Management Approaches ) argue that for employee recognition to have an impact in the progress of an organization, it needs to encourage employees to increase their efforts towards attaining organizational goals. According to Karen Forester, the TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s managing director in the UK; employee recognition has been part of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture since it started in 1965 (TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2014). One way in which the company recognizes its employees is through the use of achievement badges, which are given to employees as a form of appreciation for their achievements or extraordinary contributions they make towards the company. The company also has a program where employees are nominated by colleagues based on their performance, and are later gifted through different treats. For instance, in January 2013, TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s UK flew 400 employees to a party that was held in Florida (The Sunday Times a, 2013). Whereas such employee recognition efforts may be costly and could cut down on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability, the organization believes that it is a Ã¢â¬Å"huge deposit in the emotional bank accountÃ¢â¬ . Creation of a Conducive working Environment The organizational environment also has a role to play in the productivity of employees. There are several approaches that have been suggested by researchers on the approaches that can be used to create an organizational environment that enhances employee productivity (Armstrong, 2008). One of these is creation of an open and transparent form of communication across the organization. By so doing, all employees will have a feeling that their opinions are valuable to the organization. This also instils a sense of belonging in the employees (Aula Siira, 2010). Another approach that can be used in creation of an effective work environment for employees is ensuring that there is a work-life balance for employees (Bratton Gold, 2012; Miner, 2005). To attain work-life balance, employees ought to be given the chance to fulfil other goals and responsibility in life apart from their work. These include responsibilities to their families and the community, spiritual needs and personal growth, among others (Clutterbuck, 2003). Other approaches include encouraging a team spirit in the organization, provision of a job security assurance and offering training to improve employee competence (Orlitzky Frenkel, 2005). As opposed to typical fast-paced food restaurants, TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s employees have the assurance that their jobs are secure. With reference to a research carried out by the Sunday Times, 86% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees felt that they had secure jobs. With regard to instilling a sense of belonging in its customers, the company has a tradition for treating each of its 4000 staff members in the UK as family (The Sunday Times a, 2013). According to Karen foster, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s UK managing director, Ã¢â¬Å"We never call them staff or employees, we call them family and we treat them like familyÃ¢â¬ (Martin, 2013). This also creates a sense of teamwork, which is also a factor that improves employee productivity. Scientific Management Approach Evaluation of employee performance The scientific approach to human resource management emphasizes on increasing efficiency in employee productivity. One of the ways in which this can be done in an organization is through the evaluation of the performance of employees in periodic intervals (Taylor, 2013). Employees that are not competent enough ought to be trained or given a certain time to improve. If they fail to improve in performance, they are dismissed and replaced by more competent recruits (Bloisi, 2007). This also takes place at TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s. There was a period in time when the company needed to redefine its culture and redefine itself. To do this, some brutal approaches were undertaken to ensure that only the right staff members were left in the company. This involved carrying out an assessment of each member of the company and classifying them according to their contributions. As argued by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s UK managing director, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone in the organisation was assessed and classified as Ã¢â ¬ËplayersÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëwannabe playersÃ¢â¬â¢ (who needed more training), Ã¢â¬Ëpotential playersÃ¢â¬â¢ (who could go either way) and Ã¢â¬ËassassinsÃ¢â¬â¢ (who had the ability to sabotage the transformation project)Ã¢â¬ (Martin, 2013). The group of employees that was referred to as the assassins was dismissed from the company, a step that resulted in the improvement of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. This is an ideal approach of increasing the efficiency of the company, which is quite synonymous to the scientific management approach. Monetary Motivation To motivate employees, TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s also uses the monetary approach. Employees at the company receive annual pay reviews. In 2013, members of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s kitchen staff were offered a 9.5% pay rise as a gesture to appreciate their contributions to the company (The Sunday Times a, 2013). Even though the monetary incentives are used to motivate the company employees, they are used alongside other forms of incentives. The reason for this is that when monetary incentives are used exclusively by a company, it may limit the creativity and innovation of employees (Adeogun, 2009). Management at Christians against Poverty (CAP) Christians against Poverty (CAP) is a not-for profit organization operating the United Kingdom. It specialized in debt counselling, a charity work that that is based in different local churches across the UK (Christians Against Poverty, 2013). It offers solutions and hope for people who are in heavy debts by providing advice to the affected people on the ways in which they can generate income to enable settle the debts and relieve themselves from the associated stresses that could be even detrimental to their health. Apart from helping the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s target populations to get out of poverty, CAP has also received recognition by the Sunday Times as being among the best not for profit companies to work for (The Sunday Times b, 2013). In a study that was carried out by Sunday Times on opinions of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees about how they felt about their leadership and whether they enjoy working at CAP, there was a 95% positive response that indicated that employees loved to w ork for the company. 97% of the employees indicated their pride in being employed by the company, while 99% of the employees believed that the company makes a positive contribution in society (The Sunday Times b, 2013). Just as was the result at TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s, this response from the company employees indicates that the approaches used in the human resource management of the company is appropriate. The main difference that exists between TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s and CAP is that whereas TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s incorporates monetary incentives in employee motivation, there is no evidence that indicates that CAP uses the same. The Human Relations Approach Communication at CAP In any organization, effective communication is one of the factors that contribute towards an improvement in employee performance. Communication often depends on the structure of the organization. Hierarchical organizational structures are characterized by vertical communication channels, where employees pass information to managers through their immediate bosses (Adeogun, 2009). On the other hand, adhocratic organizations are characterized by horizontal communication channels, where employees are free to address top managers in case they need to pass across a certain message (Ulrich et al., 2008). The structure at CAP is adhocratic, based on the fact that senior managers and employees interact to share information that id positive for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s progress. Not only does this reduce the channels through which information it passed, but also motivates employees by providing them with a sense of belonging (Armstrong, 2008). They are also motivated to contribute more towar ds the organization because they know that their opinions and ideas matter. Effective communication at CAP was demonstrated in 2012 where there was a restructure of client service teams in the organization. When staff members that had been adversely affected by the reshuffle voiced their concerns, the original restructuring plans were changed (The Sunday Times b, 2013). In another demonstration of effective communication at CAP, there was a DragonÃ¢â¬â¢s Den-style event, where teams were established to propose improvements on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. All the proposals were presented, and a vote was made to select those that had to be implemented immediately. Afterwards, the managers pledged that they will ensure that the suggested proposals will be implemented (The Sunday Times b, 2013). This clearly indicates that the company involves its employees in decision making. Catering for EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Wellbeing Ensuring that the well being of employees is catered for is another approach that CAP uses to motivate its human resource force (Meyer Allen, 2007). According to the research that was carried out by the Sunday Times, the company has an 88% score on how effectively it addresses the wellbeing of its employees. One of the ways in which the company addresses the wellbeing of its employees is through setting aside a full day every year, referred to as the wellbeing day. On this day, employees are informed on how to maintain a healthy lifestyle, encouraged to use the staff gym. Several group exercises are also carried out (Christians Against Poverty, 2013). Another approach that is used to address the wellbeing of employees is through organizing motivational talks to empower them. Matt Barlow, the chief executive director of CAP, gives regular motivational speeches to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s staff members, which mainly aim at inspiring them to attain their potential in life while at the same time ensuring that they adhere to their moral principles (The Sunday Times b, 2013). This has increased the faith that employees have in him and the company. When employees are aware that the company is concerned about their well being, there is an increased likelihood for them to be more committed to the organization (Orlitzky Frenkel, 2005). Incentives As opposed to TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s where employees are provided with monetary incentives in form of bonuses and salary increments, the incentives that employees at CAP get are usually in form of free drinks and fruits, a cycle to work program and being provided with free sports facilities (The Sunday Times b, 2013). There is also a program where employees are nominated by managers for awards, depending on their performance. When employees make contributions that are beyond what is expected of them, they are recognized and awarded. Far from financial rewards that are given in most companies, the rewards that are given at CAP include meals, cinema tickets or chocolates. The annual salary of a caseworker in the company is at Ã £21,164, of which employees believe is a reasonable pay for their efforts (Christians Against Poverty, 2013). Being a not for profit organization, this explains the fact that there are no incentives in form of financial reward. Relevance of the Human Relations and Scientific management in the 21st Century To establish how relevant these approaches of human resource management are in the present-day organizational environment, it is vital to have an understanding of the principles that govern them. The scientific management approach has four core principles (Taylor, 2013). The first is referred to as the replace rule of thumb work approaches. These approaches have to be arrived at by carrying out a scientific study. The second principle is that every employee in the organization ought to be scientifically selected, trained and developed, as opposed to letting them train themselves with work experience. The third principle is that managers ought to cooperate with employees so as to ensure that they are strictly adhering to the operational methods that have been scientifically developed. The fourth principle is that work ought to be equally divided between workers and managers to allow managers to apply the principles of scientific management to plan duties for workers (Taylor, 2013). Cr itics of this approach of management argue that it increases work monotony and reduces avenues through which employees could provide feedback to their managers (Ulrich et al., 2008). However, there is still relevance of this approach in present-day human resource management. One of the principles that are still applicable is that employees ought to be scientifically selected, trained and developed by organizations (Taylor, 2013). Even present-day organizations have certain criteria that they use in selection and recruitment of their employees, and also emphasize on training them so as to make them more capable in executing their responsibilities (Bratton Gold, 2012). The human relations approach to management is based on three underlying principles (Thompson, 2011). The first principle is decentralization, where hierarchy that is often employed in classical management is replaced with providing employees with greater autonomy. The second is participatory decision making, where employees ought to be involved in the decision-making process of the organization. The third principle is that managers need to develop employees that are self-motivated (Thompson, 2011). This management approach is supportive of an organizational structure that is adhocratic (horizontal), and against the hierarchical organizational structure. Given that present-day organizations are becoming less hierarchical and more horizontal, it can be thus stated that the human relations approach to management is quite relevant in the 21st century (Ulrich et al., 2008). In regard to whether not-for-profit organizations and organizations that aim to maximize their profits need to apply different management approaches, this is quite debatable. Whilst the objectives of these organizations might differ, it is vital for both to ensure that their employees are motivated and efficient. The main aspect that may differentiate not for profit organizations with the profitable ones is that while employees in not for profit organizations may not prioritize monetary incentives, those in profitable companies expect such incentives to be incorporated in their motivation strategies. Conclusion As aforementioned in this study, human resources are the most important assets owned by any organization. Therefore, human resource managers ought to use people management strategies that motivate employees to increase their contribution towards attaining organizational goals. Two main approaches to people management have been addressed here. These are the scientific management approach and the human relations approach. Explanation of these approaches has been done by comparing management approaches in two organizations ranked among the top 100 companies to work for in the UK. One of the companies, TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s, is a profit oriented company, while other, CAP is a not for profit organization. Similarities and differences that exist in the human resource management approaches of these companies have been highlighted in this report. In establishing the relevance of scientific management and the human relations approach of management, future research should carry out a more in-dep th analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of both in the present-day organizational environment. References Adeogun, J., 2009. Monetary Motivation, Performance and Job Satisfaction. New York: ILEAD Academy. Armstrong, M., 2008. Strategic Human Resource Management: A Guide to Action. London: Kogan Page. Aula, P. Siira, K., 2010. Organizational Communication and Conflict Management Systems: A Social Complexity Approach. Nordicom Review, 31, pp.125-41. Bloisi, W., 2007. An Introduction to Human Resource Management. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. Bratton, J. Gold, J., 2012. Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice (5th edition). London: Palgrave. Christians Against Poverty, 2013. About Us. [Online] Available at: https://www.capuk.org/ [Accessed 20 February 2014]. Clutterbuck, D., 2003. Managing work-life balance: a guide for HR in achieving organizational and individual change. London: Chartered Institute Of Personal Development. Marchington, M. Wilkinson, A., 2005. Human Resource Management at Work: People Management and Development. London: CIPD. Martin, P., 2013. TGI Fridays MD: my people management secrets. [Online] Available at: hrmagazine.co.uk/hr/features/1078162/tgi-fridays-md-people-management-secrets [Accessed 20 February 2014]. Meyer, J.P. Allen, N.J., 2007. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 1, pp.61-98. Miner, J.B., 2005. Organizational Behavior: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: M.E. Sharpe. Orlitzky, M. Frenkel, S., 2005. Alternative pathways to high-performance workplaces. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(8), pp.1325-48. Taylor, F.W., 2013. Scientific management. New York: Routledge. TGI FridayÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2014. About Us. [Online] Available at: tgifridays.co.uk/ [Accessed 20 February 2014]. The Sunday Times a, 2013. The Sunday Times 100 Best Companies. [Online] Available at: http://features.thesundaytimes.co.uk/public/best100companies/live/template [Accessed 20 February 2014]. The Sunday Times b, 2013. 100 best Not for Profit Companies. [Online] Available at: http://features.thesundaytimes.co.uk/public/best100companies/live/template [Accessed 20 February 2014]. Thompson, J.D., 2011. Organizations in action: Social science bases of administrative theory. California: Transaction Publishers. Ulrich, D., Younger, J. Brockbank, W., 2008. The twenty-first-century HR organization. Human Resource Management, 47, pp.829-50. Wright, B.E., Moynihan, D.P. Pandey, S.K., 2012. Pulling the Levers: Transformational Leadership, Public Service, Motivation, and Mission Valence. Public Administration Review, 72(2), p.206Ã¢â¬â215.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Ansel Adams - Research Paper Example In this essay, I would discuss the various life experiences and natural aesthetic exposures that created a photographic genius, Ansel Adams. His congenial relationships with other renowned photographers such as Edward Weston and his travels to Yosemite and Taos Pueblo proved to be of great assistance to his prophetic vision of natural preservation. I will analyze particular photographs that defined Ansel Adams as a photographer using these influences in his long career. Lastly, I will scrutinize a particular photograph which holds much detail that Ansel Adams was trying to represent in his every picture. The photograph Line Crew Work in Manzanar looks like at first glimpse a commonplace and typical image of work life. But in a much deeper look, the photograph actually reveals even more that are invisible to the unaided eye. In 1932, a group of photographers from Bay Area were occasionally gathering for conversation and wine at the home of Willard Van Dyke in Berkeley. The group consisted of photographers in different phases of development. Ansel Adams, John Paul Edwards, Preston Holder, Sonya Noskowiak and Henry Swift were amateurs in their professions. Imogen Cunningham, on the contrary, almost fifty, took pleasure on a well-known reputation. Under the persuasion and example of the well-recognized Edward Weston, a member of the group, Cunningham was initiating the shift from Pictorialism to an acute, more realistic approach. The transition of Cunningham puts emphasis on what had unified the whole group in the first place: a resolve to perform photography as an independent form of art. Thus far, the group consented, photography had not entirely unshackled itself from the academic and artistic superiority of painting and literature: dominance somehow apparent in the mild-emphasis, narrative-controlled P ictorialist approach. Even the Photo Secessionism performed by other photographers such as Edward Steichen and Alfred Stieglitz,
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Does Dr. Kumar have to Fill Our Short Term Disability and FMLA Papers?Does Dr. Kumar has to fill our short term disability and FMLA papers? Well, yes he does. In fact, he has to do so for all of the people who are covered by the Social Security Act. Even if you're covered under Medicare or Medicaid, you are still required to have your FSLA papers filled out.FSLA means that your insurance company will pay out a lump sum to your doctors every month. This is called a death benefit because your doctor will receive payment from the insurance company as well. The insurance company pays your doctor a certain amount every month. The doctor only gets this payment for the first month or year that you were covered by them. This is called your FSLA benefit.Does Dr. Kumar has to fill our short term disability and FMLA papers? Absolutely not. He does not have to do this. However, if you ever find yourself in need of medical attention during a period of time where there isn't enough money coming in to your pocket to cover any of your expenses, you should make sure to get in touch with your insurance company to see what options they have available to you.Some insurance companies may be willing to give you money towards your FFLA benefits. Others might not. So don't forget to ask your insurance company what kind of options they have available to you. It's often a good idea to do this when you're faced with an emergency or would like to improve your FPL claim because the insurance company might be unwilling to pay out your claims if you're on a fixed income.Does Dr. Kumar has to fill our short term disability and FMLA papers? No, he doesn't. You can ask your insurance company to stop paying for your FSLA. When you do this, the insurance company will send you an invoice for the amount they gave to your doctor every month.What do you do with the payment for your FMLA? FSLA payments go directly to your doctor. There is no reimbursement. The only money that the insurance company will reimburse you for is the sum you were given for your FFLA benefit.Does Dr. Kumar has to fill our short term disability and FMLA papers? Yes, he does. You can get money for the FSLA benefit from your insurance company. Make sure to ask your insurance company about these options if you find yourself in need of a treatment.
Friday, February 7, 2020
How Mangrove Research Papers Is WritingMangrove research papers tend to give an eye-catching name to their contents, but as you read these papers, you will become convinced that they are written in a slightly more objective tone. Many people think that mangrove research papers are extremely biased towards one particular product, and that will lead you to believe that the mangrove system is the only tool that will produce good results.It is very interesting to have these types of papers and read them. You will get a clear picture of how mangrove research papers tend to portray certain things. As you read through them, you will get an idea of how mangrove management might act, and how they might have heard about certain things. When you read these papers, you will become convinced that these papers are better than you expect.To get a good idea of how mangrove research papers are written, you should start by seeing how mangrove research papers that are written by a particular mangrove r esearcher are written. You should see how the writing is handled in these papers, and you will be able to understand how the researcher wrote the paper based on his sources and how they express themselves.One important point to consider when you read a mangrove research paper is the level of research that has been carried out, and the reasoning behind it. You will see that certain research has been carried out and other research will be done. When you see the reasons for the research being carried out, you will see the source of the mangrove research and how they are related to other factors.As you read through mangrove research papers, you will see that there are no dark clouds looming over these papers. When you read some of these papers, you will see that it is based on facts. The data is the key to the mangrove research. The whole purpose of mangrove research papers is to find the underlying cause of something.The mangrove researcher in these papers will be using the results of his research and then reporting the facts. The source of mangrove research is not money, but information. When you see how these papers are written, you will see that the mangrove researcher is not overly influenced by any sort of financial motivation. They just think that mangrove research papers should be able to help them.Many people want to know how mangrove research papers are written. If you get a look at these papers, you will find that the mangrove researcher is not biased in any way, and they are writing this paper on the basis of facts. As you read these papers, you will come to know the style of writing that a mangrove researcher uses, and this will help you decide if the mangrove research papers are right or wrong.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Ideas, Formulas and Shortcuts for Good Topics for Comparison and Contrast Essay Good and Evil Good Topics for Comparison and Contrast Essay Good and Evil Secrets The cost of an essay is dependent upon the quantity of effort the writer has to exert. The procedure for writing an exemplification essay involves the preparation practice. It is possible to also order a fully written compare and contrast essay and alleviate the quantity of work you must do. Comparison-contrast essays can serve an assortment of purposes, and create an assortment of tones as an outcome. The Supreme Approach to Good Topics for Comparison and Contrast Essay Good and Evil Now, you're assigned to compose an Exemplification Essay, and you're a bit baffled. Now you have learned about the. Outlines help you organize your thoughts into a very simple map your mind can read and you may eventually follow it when you start to compose your essay. Following are a few points that will aid the author to compose a far better comparison and contrast essay format. The introduction is just one of the essential components of the essay, as it creates the very first impression needed to keep the interest over the plan of the essay. Introduction with the potent hook and thesis statement stays the same. Top Good Topics for Comparison and Contrast Essay Good and Evil Secrets For instance, you might think of similarities or differences if we are purchasing a new MP3 player or picking a place to study English. Be certain to leave your reader with a minumum of one primary point you want them to recollect. The easiest structure is to deal with the similarities in a couple of paragraphs and move on to the differences. For example an individual may opt for a topic like, life in the sh oes of a werewolf. The trick here is to choose a topic that's very specific and interesting. Before even contemplating the subject, it is necessary to understand what type of an audience would be reading the essay. To put it differently, you will require time and practice to comprehend the fine dynamics behind an important structure and wording that wows the reader. Failure to organize the content well will be a big mishap and damage your grade. So now you are aware of how to select the best compare and contrast topics and the various segments you require to address when writing. The topics you'll find here require a special approach as you attempt to think of useful and accurate content. If finding an appropriate topic for your exemplification essay is simply the start of your problems, there's a way to make them go away. You must research the selected topic and discover facts to contradict your first thesis. You can begin with the sort of topic you pick for your compare and contrast essay. A number of the essay topics below may appear to contain subjects that don't have anything in common. You are able to use any as the subject of your essay particularly when you're not assigned any specific theme. High school, in addition to college is only another part in everybody's lives. Although you're just beginning to compose essays, you shouldn't struggle attempting to think of something to discuss. Exemplification essays permit students to obtain a deeper knowledge of theories, and enable students to write with more skill, all while having the ability to internalize concepts wholly. Having to compose an exemplification essay sounds like quite a complex job, but it isn't as hard as most students imagine. Conventional classes require students to attend class at a certain time and in a particular site. Both small and big universities can provide students with the opportunities to realize educational objectives.
Tourist Attractions Management - Case Study Example Defining attractions, however, disunite tourism authorities. In fact, it has been touted that the term attractions or visitor attractions is one that defies definition simply because it has a wide range of scope and has a variety of product offerings (Fyall et al2003,p.12). The product offerings range from the natural to human-made attractions to special events. Natural attractions feature attractions within the natural environment while human-made attractions are divided into human-made edifices, structures and sites that are designed to attract tourists and "are purpose-built to accommodate their needs, such as theme parks" and those designed not to attract visitors but ended up attracting them anyway such as churches, mosques and other religious sites (Swarbrook 2002,p2). Fennell identifies 6 categories of tourism attractions i.e. "cultural (historical and heritage sites, museums); natural (parks, flora & fauna); events (festivals, Lundberg defined tourist attractions as "anything that attracts tourists" (Lundberg 1985,p.33). Middleton defined it as "a designated permanent resource which is controlled and managed for the enjoyment, amusement, entertainment and education of the visiting public" (Swarbrooke 1995,p.3). Richards, meanwhile, describes attractions as those which are essential weapons "in the arsenal of tourism destinations engaged in a competitive struggle for tourist business and thus provide focus for tourism activities" (Richards 2001,p.4). Gunn looks at attractions as "the most important reasons for travel to destinations" (Gunn 1972,p.24) while MacCannell portrays it as an "empirical relationships between a tourist, a site and a marker" (MacCannell 1989,p.41). Lew, however, counters this claiming that the definition should not be restricted to objective characteristics but also to subjective as well while alleging that "virtually anything could become an attraction, including services and facil ities" (Lew 1987,p.573). Leiper grabbed the MacCannell model and crystallised a definition of a tourist attraction as "a systematic arrangement of 3 elements: a person with tourism needs, a nucleus (any feature or characteristic of a place they might visit) and at least one marker or an information about the nucleus (Leiper 1981,p79).MacCannell further reformed his model to come up with a Staged Development Model which insists that ordinary places can be developed into exciting attractions if they undergo the 5 stages of development. And these are: the naming of the site; the framing and elevating stage